Monday, 13 October 2008

U2: The Definitive History

U2 are a rock band from Dublin, Ireland. The band consists of Bono (vocals and guitar), The Edge (guitar, keyboards, and vocals), Adam Clayton (bass guitar) and Larry Mullen, Jr. (drums and percussion).
The band formed in 1976 when the members were teenagers with limited musical proficiency. By the mid-1980s, however, the band had become a top international act, noted for their anthemic sound, Bono's impassioned vocals, and The Edge's textural guitar playing. Their success as a live act was greater than their success at selling records until their 1987 album The Joshua Tree[1] increased the band's stature "from heroes to superstars," according to Rolling Stone.[2] U2 responded to the dance and alternative rock revolutions, and their own sense of musical stagnation by reinventing themselves with their 1991 album Achtung Baby and the accompanying Zoo TV Tour. Similar experimentation continued for the rest of the 1990s. Since 2000, U2 have pursued a more traditional sound that retains the influence of their previous musical explorations.
U2 have sold more than 140 million albums worldwide[3] and have won 22 Grammy Awards,[4] more than any other band.[5] In 2005, the band were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility. Rolling Stone magazine listed U2 at #22 in its list of the 100 greatest artists of all time.[6] Throughout their career, as a band and as individuals, they have campaigned for human rights and social justice causes, including Amnesty International, the ONE Campaign, and Bono's DATA (Debt, AIDS, Trade in Africa) campaign.
1 History
1.1 Formation and early years (1976–1979)
1.2 Boy, October, and War (1980–1983)
1.3 The Unforgettable Fire and Live Aid (1984–1985)
1.4 The Joshua Tree and Rattle and Hum (1986–1989)
1.5 Achtung Baby, Zoo TV, and Zooropa (1990–1993)
1.6 Passengers, Pop, and PopMart (1995–1998)
1.7 "Reapplying to be the best band in the world" (2000–present)
2 Musical style
2.1 Lyrics and themes
2.2 Influences
3 Campaigning and activism
4 Other projects
5 Discography
6 Awards
7 References
7.1 General
7.2 Notes
8 External links

[edit] History

[edit] Formation and early years (1976–1979)

U2 in 1979: (left to right) Clayton, Mullen, Bono, Edge
The band formed in Dublin on 25 September 1976.[7] Larry Mullen, Jr., then 14, posted a notice on his secondary school notice board (Mount Temple Comprehensive School) seeking musicians for a new band. Seven teenage boys attended the initial practice in Mullen's kitchen. It was, as Mullen put it, "'The Larry Mullen Band' for about ten minutes, then Bono walked in and blew any chance I had of being in charge." The group featured Mullen on drums, Paul Hewson (Bono) on lead vocals, Dave Evans (The Edge) and his brother Dik Evans on guitar, Adam Clayton, a friend of the Evans brothers on bass guitar, and initially Ivan McCormick and Peter Martin, two other friends of Mullen.[8] Soon after, the group settled on the name "Feedback", because it was one of the few technical terms they knew.[9] Martin did not return after the first practice, and McCormick left the group within a few weeks. Most of the group's material initially consisted of cover versions, which the band said was not their forte.[citation needed] The original material the band did write demonstrated a sound influenced by their post-punk peers.[10]
We couldn't believe it. I was completely shocked. We weren't of an age to go out partying as such but I don't think anyone slept that night....Really, it was just a great affirmation to win that competition, even though I've no idea how good we were or what the competition was really like. But to win at that point was incredibly important for morale and everyone's belief in the whole project.
The Edge on winning the CBS competition[11]
In March 1977, the band changed their name to "The Hype".[12] Dik Evans, who was older and by this time at college, was becoming the odd man out. The rest of the band was leaning towards the idea of a four-piece ensemble and he was "phased out" in March 1978. During a farewell concert in the Presbyterian Church Hall in Howth, which featured The Hype playing covers, Dik ceremoniously walked offstage. The remaining four band members completed the concert playing original material as "U2".[13] Steve Averill, a punk rock musician and family friend of Clayton's, had suggested six potential names from which the band chose "U2" for its ambiguity and open-ended interpretations, and because it was the name that they disliked the least.[14]
On Saint Patrick's Day in 1978, U2 won a talent show in Limerick, Ireland. The prize consisted of £500 and funding to record a demo, which was an important milestone and affirmation for the fledgling band.[13] The band recorded their first demo tape at Keystone Studios, in Harcourt Street, Dublin, in April 1978.[15] In May, Paul McGuinness, who had earlier been introduced to the band by Hot Press journalist Bill Graham, agreed to be U2's manager.[16] U2's first release, an Ireland-only EP entitled Three, was released in September 1979 and was the band's first Irish chart success.[17] In December 1979, U2 performed in London for their first shows outside Ireland, although they failed to get much attention from audiences or critics.[18] In February 1980, their second single "Another Day" was released on the CBS label, but again only for the Irish market.[19]

[edit] Boy, October, and War (1980–1983)
Island Records signed U2 in March 1980, and "11 O'Clock Tick Tock" became the band's first internationally released single that May.[20] The band's debut album, the Steve Lillywhite produced Boy, followed in October, and received generally positive reviews.[21] Although Bono's lyrics were unfocused and seemingly improvised, a common theme was the dreams and frustrations of adolescence.[22] The album included the band's first United Kingdom hit single, "I Will Follow". Boy's release was followed by U2's first tour of continental Europe and the United States.[23] Despite being unpolished, these early live performances demonstrated U2's potential, as critics noted that Bono was a "charismatic" and "passionate" showman.[24]
The band's second album, October, was released in 1981 and contained overtly spiritual themes. During the album's recording sessions, Bono and The Edge left the band due to spiritual conflicts, and U2 ceased to exist for a brief period of time.[25] Bono, The Edge, and Mullen had joined a Christian group in Dublin called the 'Shalom Fellowship', which led them to question the relationship between the Christian faith and the rock and roll lifestyle.[26] The album received mixed reviews and limited radio play. It did not sell well outside of the UK, which put pressure on their contract with Island and focused the band on improvement.[27]
Music sample:
"Sunday Bloody Sunday" (1983)
From the album War.Problems listening to the file? See media help.
Resolving the doubts of the October period, U2 released War in 1983.[28] A record where the band "turned pacifism itself into a crusade,"[29] War's sincerity and "rugged" guitar was intentionally at odds with the "cooler" synth-pop of the time.[30] The album included "Sunday Bloody Sunday," where Bono had lyrically tried to contrast the events of Bloody Sunday with Easter Sunday.[31] Rolling Stone magazine wrote that the song showed the band was capable of deep and meaningful songwriting. War was U2's first album to feature the photography of Anton Corbijn, who remains U2's principal photographer and has had a major influence on their vision and public image.[32] U2's first commercial success, War debuted at number one in the UK, and its first single, "New Year's Day", was the band's first overseas hit.[33]
On the subsequent War Tour, the band performed to sold-out concerts in mainland Europe and the U.S. The image of Bono waving a white flag during performances of "Sunday Bloody Sunday" became a familiar sight.[34] U2 recorded the Under a Blood Red Sky live album on this tour and a live video was released, both of which received extensive play on the radio and MTV, expanding the band's audience and cementing the band's prowess as a live band.[35] Their generally unfavourable record deal with Island Records was coming to an end, and in 1984 U2 signed a highly lucrative extension. They negotiated the return of their copyrights (such that they owned the rights to their own songs), an increase in their royalty rate, and a general improvement in terms, at the expense of a larger initial payment.[36]
In July 2008 (2008-07), U2 released re-mastered and deluxe versions of Boy, October, and War. [37]

[edit] The Unforgettable Fire and Live Aid (1984–1985)
We knew the world was ready to receive the heirs to The Who. All we had to do was to keep doing what we were doing and we would become the biggest band since Led Zeppelin, without a doubt. But something just didn't feel right. We felt we had more dimension than just the next big anything, we had something unique to offer. The innovation was what would suffer if we went down the standard rock route. We were looking for another feeling.
Bono on The Unforgettable Fire's new direction.[38]
The Unforgettable Fire was released in 1984. Ambient and abstract, it was at the time the band’s most marked change in direction.[39] The band feared that following the overt rock of the War album and tour, they were in danger of becoming another "shrill", "sloganeering arena-rock band".[40] Thus, experimentation was sought[41] as Adam Clayton recalls, "We were looking for something that was a bit more serious, more arty."[38] The Edge admired the ambient and "weird works" of Brian Eno, who, along with his engineer Daniel Lanois, eventually agreed to produce the record.[42]
The Unforgettable Fire has a rich and orchestrated sound. Under Lanois' direction, Larry's drumming became looser, funkier, and more subtle and Adam's bass became more subliminal; the rhythm section no longer intruded, but flowed in support of the songs.[43] Complementing the sonic atmospherics, the album's lyrics are open to many interpretations, providing what the band called a "very visual feel".[39] Bono's recent immersion in fiction, philosophy, and poetry made him realise that his songwriting responsibilities—about which he had always been reluctant—were a poetic one. Due to a tight recording schedule, however, Bono felt songs like "Bad" and "Pride (In the Name of Love)" were incomplete "sketches".[44] "Pride (In the Name of Love)", about Martin Luther King, was the album's first single and became the band's biggest hit at that point, including being their first to enter the U.S. top 40.[45]
Music sample:
"The Unforgettable Fire" (1984)
Sample of "The Unforgettable Fire" from the album The Unforgettable Fire (1984). Typical of the album, the song has a rich, symphonic sound built from ambient guitar and driving rhythm; a lyrical "sketch".[46]Problems listening to the file? See media help.
Much of The Unforgettable Fire Tour moved into indoor arenas as U2 began to win their long battle to build their audience.[47] The complex textures of the new studio-recorded tracks, such as "The Unforgettable Fire" and "Bad", were problematic to translate to live performance.[39] One solution was programmed sequencers, which the band had previously been reluctant to use, but are now used in the majority of the band's performances.[39] Songs on the album had been criticised as being "unfinished", "fuzzy", and "unfocused", but were better received by critics when played on stage.[48]

U2's performance at Live Aid was a turning point in their career.
U2 participated in the Live Aid concert for Ethiopian famine relief at Wembley Stadium in July 1985.[49] U2's performance was considered one of the show's most memorable and was a turning point in the band's career.[50] During the song "Bad", Bono leapt down off the stage to embrace and dance with a fan, showing a television audience of millions the personal connection that Bono could make with audiences.[51] In 1985, Rolling Stone magazine called U2 the "Band of the 80s," saying that "for a growing number of rock-and-roll fans, U2 have become the band that matters most, maybe even the only band that matters."[52]

[edit] The Joshua Tree and Rattle and Hum (1986–1989)
Motivated by friendships with Bob Dylan, Van Morrison, and Keith Richards, the band looked back to the roots of rock music, and Bono focused on his skills as a song and lyric writer.[53] Realising "that U2 had no tradition", the band explored American blues, country, and gospel music.[54] For their fifth album, the band wanted to build on The Unforgettable Fire's atmospherics, but instead of its out-of-focus tracks, they sought a harder-hitting sound within the strict discipline of conventional song structures.[55] U2 interrupted their 1986 album sessions to serve as a headline act on Amnesty International's A Conspiracy of Hope tour, but rather than be a distraction, the tour added extra intensity and power to their new music.[56] In his 1986 travels to San Salvador and Nicaragua, Bono saw the distress of peasants bullied in internal conflicts subject to American political intervention. This first-hand experience later became a central influence on the new music. The band wanted music with a sense of location, a 'cinematic' quality; the album's music and lyrics draw on imagery created by American writers whose works the band had been reading.[57]
The wild beauty, cultural richness, spiritual vacancy and ferocious violence of America are explored to compelling effect in virtually every aspect of The Joshua Tree—in the title and the cover art, the blues and country borrowings evident in the music...Indeed, Bono says that "dismantling the mythology of America" is an important part of The Joshua Tree's artistic objective.
Rolling Stone[58]
The Joshua Tree[59] was released in March 1987. The album juxtaposes antipathy towards America against the band's deep fascination with the country, its open spaces, freedom, and what it stands for.[60] It became the fastest-selling album in British chart history, and was number one for nine weeks in the United States.[61] It won U2 their first two Grammy Awards.[62] The album's first two singles, the 'rock & roll bolero "With or Without You"[40] and the rhythmic gospel "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For", quickly went to number one in the U.S. U2 became the fourth rock band to be featured on the cover of Time magazine,[63] which declared U2 "Rock's Hottest Ticket".[64] The album brought U2 a new level of success and is cited by Rolling Stone as one of rock's greatest.[65] The Joshua Tree Tour was the first during which the band played numerous stadium shows alongside smaller arena shows.[66]
The documentary Rattle and Hum featured footage recorded from The Joshua Tree Tour, and the accompanying double album of the same name included nine studio tracks and six live U2 performances. Released in record stores and cinemas in October 1988, the album and film were intended as a tribute to American music.[67] The film included tracks recorded at Sun Studios in Memphis and tracks performed with Bob Dylan and B. B. King. Despite a positive reception from fans, Rattle and Hum received mixed reviews from both film and music critics;[68] one Rolling Stone editor spoke of the album's "excitement", another described it as "bombastic and misguided".[69] The film's director, Phil Joanou, described it as "an overly pretentious look at U2".[70] Most of the album's new material was played on 1989's Lovetown Tour, which primarily consisted of shows in Australia and Europe. With a sense of musical stagnation, Bono announced at an end-of-decade concert that U2 had come to the end of an era and had to "...go away and just dream it all up again".[71]

[edit] Achtung Baby, Zoo TV, and Zooropa (1990–1993)
Buzzwords on this record were trashy, throwaway, dark, sexy, and industrial (all good) and earnest, polite, sweet, righteous, rockist and linear (all bad). It was good if a song took you on a journey or made you think your hifi was broken, bad if it reminded you of recording studios or U2...Berlin became a conceptual backdrop for the record. The Berlin of the Thirties—decadent, sexual and dark—resonating against the Berlin of the Nineties—reborn, chaotic and optimistic...
Brian Eno on the recording of Achtung Baby[72]
In November 1991, U2 released their seventh studio album, Achtung Baby. Stung by criticism of Rattle and Hum, the band made a calculated change in musical and thematic direction, their most dramatic since The Unforgettable Fire.[73] Sonically, Achtung Baby incorporated dance, industrial, and alternative rock influences of the time and the band referred to the album as the sound of "four men chopping down the Joshua Tree".[74] Thematically, it was a more inward-looking and personal record; it was darker, yet at times more flippant, than the band's previous work. Commercially and critically, it has been one of the band's most successful albums and a crucial part of the band's early 1990s reinvention.[75] Like The Joshua Tree, it is cited by Rolling Stone as one of rock's greatest.[65]
The band initially worked on Achtung Baby in East Berlin, seeking inspiration and renewal on the eve of German reunification. Daniel Lanois produced the album with assistance from Brian Eno.[76] In the Berlin sessions, conflict arose within the band over the quality of material and musical direction. While Adam and Larry preferred a sound similar to U2's previous work, Bono and The Edge were inspired by alternative and European dance music and advocated a change. Weeks of slow progress, arguments, and tension subsided when the band rallied around a chord progression The Edge had written, creating the song "One".[77]
Music sample:
"The Fly" (1991)
Sample of "The Fly" – chosen as the first single from Achtung Baby (1991) because its hip-hop beats, distorted vocals, and hard industrial edge sounded nothing like the traditional U2 sound.[78]Problems listening to the file? See media help.
The Zoo TV Tour of 1992–1993 was a multimedia event, and showcased an extravagant but intentionally bewildering array of hundreds of video screens, upside-down flying Trabant cars, mock transmission towers, satellite TV links, subliminal messages, and Bono's over-the-top stage characters such as "The Fly", "Mirror-Ball Man", and "(Mister) MacPhisto". The extravagant shows were intentionally in contrast to the austere staging of previous U2 tours, and mocked the excesses of rock and roll by appearing to embrace these very excesses. The shows were, in part, U2's way to represent the pervasive nature of cable television and its blurring of news, entertainment, and home shopping.[79] Prank phone calls were made to President Bush, the United Nations, and others. Live satellite uplinks to war-torn Sarajevo caused controversy.[80]

The Zoo TV stage
Quickly recorded and released during a break in the Zoo TV tour in mid-1993, the Zooropa album continued many of the themes from Achtung Baby and the Zoo TV tour. Initially intended as an EP, the band expanded Zooropa into a full-length LP album. It was an even greater departure from the style of their earlier recordings, incorporating techno influences and other electronic effects.[81] In keeping with this intentional departure from their previous style, Bono stepped down from the mic for the final track on Zooropa, and invited Johnny Cash to perform "The Wanderer".
Most of the songs were played at least once during the 1993 leg of the tour, which extended through Europe, Australia, New Zealand and Japan; half the album's tracks became fixtures in the set.[82]

[edit] Passengers, Pop, and PopMart (1995–1998)
In 1995, U2 released an experimental album called Original Soundtracks 1. Brian Eno, producer of three previous U2 albums, contributed as a full partner, including writing and performing. For this reason, and due to the record's highly experimental nature, the band chose to release it under the moniker "Passengers" to distinguish it from U2's conventional albums. It was commercially unnoticed by U2 standards and it received generally poor reviews. However, the single "Miss Sarajevo" featuring Luciano Pavarotti, and which Bono cites as one of his favourite U2 songs,[83] was a hit.

The giant screen from the PopMart Tour stage
It's not enough to write a great lyric; it’s not enough to have a good idea or a great hook, lots of things have to come together and then you have to have the ability to discipline and screen. We should give this album to a re-mixer, go back to what was originally intended, so that 'Mofo' is on top of the stickiest groove with a proper plastic attack, 'Do You Feel Loved' is done as a liquid bass line hook that carries the intimacies whispered on top of it, 'If God Will Send His Angels' should be diamonds and pearls.
Bono on Pop[84]
On 1997's Pop, U2 continued experimenting; Tape loops, programming, rhythm sequencing, and sampling provided much of the album with heavy, funky dance rhythms.[85] Released in March, the album debuted at number one in 35 countries, and drew mainly positive reviews.[86] Rolling Stone, for example, stated that U2 had "defied the odds and made some of the greatest music of their lives."[87] Others felt that the album was a major disappointment and sales were poor compared to previous U2 releases.[88] The band was hurried into completing the album in time for the impending pre-booked tour, and Bono admitted that the album "didn't communicate the way it was intended to".[89]
The subsequent tour, PopMart, commenced in April 1997. Like Zoo TV, it featured advertising influences and was intended to send a sarcastic message to those accusing U2 of commercialism. The stage included a 100-foot (30 m) tall golden yellow arch (reminiscent of the McDonald's logo), a 150-foot (46 m) long video screen, and a 40-foot (12 m) tall mirrorball lemon. U2's "big shtick" failed, however, to satisfy many who were seemingly confused by the band's new kitsch image and elaborate sets.[90] The late delivery of Pop meant rehearsal time was severely reduced, and performances in early shows suffered.[91] A highlight of the tour was a concert in Sarajevo where U2 were the first major group to perform following the Bosnian War.[92] Larry Mullen, Jr. described the concert as "an experience I will never forget for the rest of my life, and if I had to spend 20 years in the band just to play that show, and have done that, I think it would have been worthwhile."[93] One month following the conclusion of the PopMart Tour, U2 appeared on the 200th episode of The Simpsons, "Trash of the Titans," in which Homer Simpson disrupted the band on stage during a PopMart concert.[94]

[edit] "Reapplying to be the best band in the world" (2000–present)
All That You Can't Leave Behind is easy to relate to, full of solid songs that appeal to a wide audience with its clear notions of family, friendship, love, death, and re-birth. More Lanois than Eno on first impression, the sounds on this album come from a band that has digested the music it started to consume while making Rattle and Hum. This time they are neither imitating or paying tribute. This time it's soul music, not music about soul.
— Caroline van Oosten de Boer[41]
Following the comparatively poor reception of Pop, U2 declared on a number of occasions that they were "reapplying for the job ... [of] the best band in the world".[95] Since 2000, the band has pursued a more traditional sound while maintaining influences from their previous musical explorations.[96] All That You Can't Leave Behind was released in October 2000 and reunited the band with producers Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois. The album was considered by many of those not won over by the band's 1990s experimentation as a return to grace;[97] Rolling Stone called it U2's "third masterpiece" alongside The Joshua Tree and Achtung Baby.[98] The album debuted at number one in 22 countries[99] and its world-wide hit single, "Beautiful Day" earned three Grammy Awards. The album's other singles, "Walk On", "Elevation", and "Stuck in a Moment You Can't Get Out Of" also won Grammy Awards.

U2 perform at Super Bowl XXXVI Halftime Show, 3 February 2002
For the Elevation Tour, U2 performed in a scaled-down setting, returning to arenas after nearly a decade of stadium productions. A heart-shaped stage and ramp permitted greater proximity to the audience. Following the September 11 attacks, the new album gained added resonance.[100] In October, U2 performed a series of sold-out shows at Madison Square Garden in New York City. In later interviews, Bono and the Edge called these New York City shows among their most memorable and emotional performances.[101] In early 2002, U2 performed during halftime of Super Bowl XXXVI.[102]
The band's next studio album, How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb, was released on 22 November 2004. Sonically, the band was looking for harder-hitting rock than All That You Can't Leave Behind. Thematically, Bono states that "A lot of the songs are paeans to naiveté, a rejection of knowingness."[103] The first single, "Vertigo," was featured on a widely-aired television commercial for the Apple iPod, in conjunction with the release of a special edition U2 iPod and an iTunes U2 box set. The album debuted at number one in the U.S. where first week sales doubled that of All That You Can't Leave Behind and set a record for the band.[104] Claiming it as a contender as one of U2's three best albums, Bono said, "There are no weak songs. But as an album, the whole isn't greater than the sum of its parts, and it fucking annoys me."[103] Using a similar setup and stage design as the previous tour, the Vertigo Tour featured a set list that varied more across dates than any U2 tour since the Lovetown Tour, and included songs not played since the early 1980s. Like the Elevation Tour, the Vertigo Tour was a commercial success.[105] The album and its singles won Grammy Awards in all eight categories in which U2 were nominated. In 2005, Bruce Springsteen inducted U2 into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[106]
In August 2006, the band transferred some of its operations to The Netherlands two months after Ireland capped its artists' tax exemption at €250,000.[107] Since 2006, the band have been writing and recording new material, initially with Rick Rubin, and more recently with Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois. The band's twelfth album is planned to be released in 2009.[108] The album has been described as "hand-played but it's also electro."[109] Bono has been quoted as saying that the sessions show a real departure from the themes of the last two albums, with "trance influences,"[110] and Lanois has said the album will push the limits of the sound arena much like Achtung Baby years earlier. A 3-D concert film, U2 3D, filmed at nine concerts during the Vertigo Tour, was released on 23 January 2008. On 31 March 2008, it was confirmed that U2 signed a 12 year deal with Live Nation worth an estimated $100 million (£50 million). [111] The deal includes Live Nation controlling the band's merchandise, sponsoring and their official website.

[edit] Musical style
Since their inception, U2 have developed and maintained a distinctly recognisable sound, with emphasis on melodic instrumentals and expressive, larger-than-life vocals.[112] This approach is rooted partly in the early influence of record producer Steve Lillywhite at a time when the band was not known for musical proficiency.[113] The Edge has consistently used a rhythmic echo and a signature delay[114] to craft his guitar work, coupled with an Irish-influenced drone played against his syncopated melodies[115] that ultimately yields a well-defined ambient, chiming sound. Bono has nurtured his falsetto operatic voice[116] and has exhibited a notable lyrical bent towards social, political, and personal subject matter while maintaining a grandiose scale in his songwriting. In addition, the Edge has described U2 as a fundamentally live band.[115]
Despite these broad consistencies, U2 have introduced new elements into their musical repertoire with each new album. U2's early sound was influenced by bands such as Television and Joy Division, and has been described as containing a "sense of exhilaration" that resulted from The Edge's "radiant chords" and Bono's "ardent vocals".[117] U2's sound began with post-punk roots and minimalistic and uncomplicated instrumentals heard on Boy and October, but evolved through War to include aspects of rock anthem, funk, and dance rhythms to become more versatile and aggressive.[118] The two albums were labeled "muscular and assertive" by Rolling Stone,[40] influenced in large part by Lillywhite's producing. The Unforgettable Fire, which began with the Edge playing more keyboards than guitars, as well as follow-up The Joshua Tree, had Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois at the production helm. With their influence, both albums achieved a "diverse texture".[40] The songs from The Joshua Tree and Rattle and Hum placed more emphasis on Lanois-inspired rhythm as they mixed distinct and varied styles of gospel and blues music, which stemmed from the band's burgeoning fascination with America's culture, people and places. In the 1990s, U2 reinvented themselves as they began using synthesizers, distortion, and electronic beats derived from alternative music, dance music, and hip-hop on Achtung Baby,[119] Zooropa and Pop.[120] The 2000s had U2 returning to a stripped-down sound, with less use of synthesizers and effects and a more traditional rhythm.

[edit] Lyrics and themes
Social and political commentary, often embellished with Christian religious and spiritual imagery,[121] are a major aspect of U2's lyrical content. Songs like "Sunday Bloody Sunday" and "Mothers of the Disappeared" were motivated by current events of the time. The former was written about the troubles in Northern Ireland,[122] while the latter concerns the struggle of mothers whose children were kidnapped and killed under Argentina's military dictatorship that began in 1976.
Bono's personal conflicts and turmoil related to family colour songs like "Mofo", "Tomorrow" and "Kite". An emotional yearning or pleading is another frequent conveyance,[112] in tracks such as "Yahweh",[123] "Peace on Earth", and "Please". The investigation of loss and anguish coupled with hopefulness and resiliency, which is central to The Joshua Tree,[40] has motivated much of U2's songwriting and music. Some of this lyrical ideation has been amplified by Bono and the band's personal experiences during their youth in Ireland, as well as Bono's campaigning and activism later in his life. U2 have used tours such as Zoo TV and PopMart to caricature social trends, such as media overload and consumerism, respectively.[120]
While the band and its fans often affirm the political nature of their music, U2's lyrics and music have been criticized as apolitical because of their vagueness and "fuzzy imagery", and a lack of any specific references to actual people or characters.[124]

[edit] Influences
The band cites The Who,[125] The Clash,[126], Ramones,[127] The Beatles,[128] Joy Division,[129] Siouxsie & the Banshees[130] and Patti Smith[131] as influences. Van Morrison has been cited by Bono as an influence[132]and his influence on U2 is pointed out by the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[133] Other musicians and bands such as Snow Patrol, [134] The Fray,[135] OneRepublic,[136] Coldplay,[137] The Academy Is...,[138] The Killers, Your Vegas[139] and Angels & Airwaves[140] have in turn been influenced by the work of U2. Cover versions of U2 songs have been made by performers such as Our Lady Peace, Mary J. Blige, Johnny Cash, The Chimes, Joe Cocker, Pearl Jam, James Blunt, tobyMac, Darlene Zschech, Pet Shop Boys, Ignite, The Smashing Pumpkins, Keane, Pillar, Hikaru Utada, Dream Theater, Sepultura, Saul Williams, The Living End, The Upper Room and The Bravery. U2 have also worked and/or had influential relationships with artists including Green Day, Leonard Cohen, Bruce Springsteen, B.B. King, Luciano Pavarotti,[141] Bob Dylan, Elvis Costello, Wim Wenders, R.E.M., Salman Rushdie, and Anton Corbijn.

[edit] Campaigning and activism

Bono with President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil
Since the early 1980s, the members of U2—as a band and individually—have collaborated with other musicians, artists, celebrities, and politicians to address issues concerning poverty, disease, and social injustice.
In 1984, Bono and Adam Clayton participated in Band Aid to raise money for Ethiopian famine relief. The initiative produced the hit charity single "Do They Know It's Christmas?", which would be the first among several collaborations between U2 and Bob Geldof. In July 1985, U2 played Live Aid, a follow-up to Band Aid's efforts. Bono and his wife Ali, invited by World Vision, later visited Ethiopia where they witnessed the famine first hand. Bono would later say this laid the groundwork for his Africa campaigning and some of his songwriting.[142]
In 1986, U2 participated in the A Conspiracy of Hope tour in support of Amnesty International and in Self Aid for unemployment in Ireland. The same year, Bono and Ali Hewson also visited Nicaragua and El Salvador at the invitation of the Sanctuary movement, and saw the effects of the El Salvador Civil War. These 1986 events greatly influenced The Joshua Tree album, which was being recorded at the time.
In 1992, the band participated in the "Stop Sellafield" concert with Greenpeace during their Zoo TV tour.[143] Events in Sarajevo during the Bosnian war inspired the song "Miss Sarajevo", which premiered at a September 1995 Pavarotti and Friends show, and which Bono and the Edge performed at War Child.[144] A promise made in 1993 was kept when the band played in Sarajevo as part of 1997's PopMart Tour.[145] In 1998, they performed in Belfast days prior to the vote on the Good Friday Agreement, bringing Irish political leaders David Trimble and John Hume on stage to promote the agreement.[146] Later that year, all proceeds from the release of the "Sweetest Thing" single went towards supporting the Chernobyl Children's Project.
In 2001, the band dedicated "Walk On" to Burma's pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi.[147] In late 2003, Bono and the Edge participated in the South Africa HIV/AIDS awareness 46664 series of concerts hosted by Nelson Mandela. The band played 2005's Live 8 concert in London. The band and manager Paul McGuinness were awarded Amnesty International's Ambassador of Conscience Award for their work in promoting human rights.[148]
Since 2000, Bono's campaigning has included Jubilee 2000 with Bob Geldof, Muhammad Ali, and others to promote the cancellation of third world debt during the Great Jubilee. In January 2002, Bono co-founded the multinational NGO, DATA, with the aim of improving the social, political, and financial state of Africa. He continued his campaigns for debt and HIV/AIDS relief into June 2002 by making high-profile visits to Africa.[149]
Product Red, a 2006 for-profit brand seeking to raise money for the Global Fund, was founded, in part, by Bono. The ONE Campaign, the US counterpart of Make Poverty History, has been shaped by his efforts and vision. Bono has also teamed up with Yahoo! to promote the ONE Campaign, which Yahoo! has helped to re-develop.
In late 2005, following Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita, The Edge helped introduce Music Rising, an initiative to raise funds for musicians who lost their instruments in the storm-ravaged Gulf Coast.[150] In 2006, U2 collaborated with punk rock band Green Day to record a cover version of the song "The Saints Are Coming" by The Skids to benefit Music Rising.[151]
U2 and Bono's social activism have not been without its critics however. Several authors and activists who publish in politically left journals such as CounterPunch have decried Bono's support of political figures such as Paul Wolfowitz,[152] as well as his "essential paternalism".[153] Other news sources have more generally questioned the efficacy of Bono's campaign to relieve debt and provide assistance to Africa, with 20/20 declaring that "foreign aid often just makes politicians rich—but leaves their people poor".[154]

[edit] Other projects
The members of U2 have undertaken a number of side projects, sometimes in collaboration with some of their bandmates. In 1985, Bono recorded the song "In a Lifetime" with the Irish band Clannad. The Edge recorded a solo soundtrack album for the film Captive in 1986,[155] which included a vocal performance by Sinéad O'Connor that predates her own debut album by a year. Bono and The Edge wrote the song "She's A Mystery To Me" for Roy Orbison, which was featured on his 1989 album Mystery Girl.[156]. In 1990, Larry Mullen co-wrote and produced a song for the Irish International soccer team in Italia '90, called "Put 'Em Under Pressure", which topped the Irish charts. Together with The Edge, Bono wrote the song "Goldeneye" for the 1995 James Bond film GoldenEye, which was performed by Tina Turner.[157] Adam Clayton and Larry Mullen, Jr. did a rework of the title track of the movie Mission: Impossible in 1996.[158] Bono loaned his voice to "Joy" on Mick Jagger's 2001 album Goddess in the Doorway.[159] Bono also recorded a spare, nearly spoken-word version of Leonard Cohen's "Hallelujah" for the "Tower of Song" compilation in 1995.
Aside from musical collaborations, U2 have worked with several authors. American author William S. Burroughs had a guest appearance in U2's video for "Last Night on Earth" shortly before he died.[160] His poem "A Thanksgiving Prayer" was used as video footage during the band's Zoo TV Tour. Other collaborators include William Gibson and Allen Ginsberg.[161] In early 2000, the band recorded three songs for the The Million Dollar Hotel movie soundtrack, including "The Ground Beneath Her Feet," which was co-written by Salman Rushdie and motivated by his book of the same name.[162]

[edit] Discography
Main article: U2 discography
Boy (1980)
October (1981)
War (1983)
The Unforgettable Fire (1984)
The Joshua Tree (1987)
Rattle and Hum (1988)
Achtung Baby (1991)
Zooropa (1993)
Pop (1997)
All That You Can't Leave Behind (2000)
How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb (2004)

[edit] Awards
Main article: List of U2 awards
U2 first received Grammy Awards for the The Joshua Tree in 1988, and have won 22 in total since, tying U2 with Stevie Wonder as contemporary artists with the most Grammys.[5] These include Best Rock Duo or Group, Album of the Year, Record of the Year, Song of the Year and Best Rock Album. The British Phonographic Industry has awarded U2 seven BRIT Awards, five of these being for Best International Group. In Ireland, U2 have won 14 Meteor Awards since the awards began in 2001. Other awards include one AMA, four VMAs, ten Q Awards, two Juno Awards, three NME Awards, and a Golden Globe Award. The band were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in early 2005.[106]

[edit] References

[edit] General
Chatterton, Mark (2001). U2: The Complete Encyclopedia. Firefly Publishing. ISBN 0-946719-41-1
Flanagan, Bill (1995). U2 at the End of the World. Delacorte Press. ISBN 0-385-31154-0
Graham, Bill; van Oosten de Boer (2004). U2: The Complete Guide to their Music. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-9886-8.
McCormick, Neil (ed), (2006). U2 by U2. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-00-719668-7
de la Parra, Pimm Jal (2003). U2 Live: A Concert Documentary. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-9198-7
Stokes, Niall (1996). Into The Heart: The Stories Behind Every U2 Song. Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 0-7322-6036-1.
Wall, Mick, (2005). Bono. Andre Deutsch Publishers. ISBN 0233001593 (Promotional edition published by Paperview UK in association with the Irish Independent)

[edit] Notes
^ Paul McGuinness. (1998). Classic Albums: The Joshua Tree [Television documentary]. Rajon Vision.
^ Gardner, Elysa (1994). U2: The Rolling Stone Files. New York: Rolling Stone Magazine, page xx. ISBN ISBN 0-283-06239-8.
^ "Bono, U2 - Board of Directors". DATA. Retrieved on 2008-09-11.; Kilgore, Kym (2008-03-31). "U2 signs on with Live Nation". LiveDaily. Retrieved on 2008-09-11.
^ Kilgore, Kym (2008-03-31). "U2 signs on with Live Nation". LiveDaily. Retrieved on 2008-09-11.
^ a b Grammy Winners List Retrieved 15 October 2006.
^ The Immortals: The First Fifty. (24 March 2004). Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
^ McCormick (2006), page 27
^ Chatterton (2001), page 130
^ McCormick (2006), page 30
^ "U2: Biography: Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2008-08-14.
^ McCormick (2006), pages 46–47
^ de la Parra (2003), page 6
^ a b McCormick (2006), pages 46–48
^ McCormick (2006), page 44
^ Wall, Mick, (2005). Bono. Andre Deutsch Publishers. ISBN 0233001593 (Promotional edition published by Paperview UK is association with the Irish Independent), pages 45
^ McCormick (2006), pages 53–56
^ de la Parra (1994), page 8
^ de la Parra (1994), page 10
^ Stokes (1996), page 142; McCormick (2006), page 88
^ Stokes (1996), page 142
^ "Boy Review". Hot Press (October 1980). Retrieved on 2007-09-06.; "Boy New Music Express review". New Music Express (1980-10-25). Retrieved on 2007-09-06.; "Boy Billboard review". Billboard (1980-09-30). Retrieved on 2007-09-06.; "Boy The Washington Post review". The Washington Post (1980-09-30). Retrieved on 2007-09-06.
^ Henke, James (1981-02-19). "U2: Here Comes the "Next Big Thing"". Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2007-09-06.
^ de la Parra (2003), pages 16,17
^ "Voice of Influential U2 Frontman". BBC (2006-12-23). Retrieved on 2007-09-06.
^ McCormick, Neil (2008). Album notes for October by U2 [Remastered deluxe edition CD booklet]. Island Records (B0010948-02).
^ Flanagan (1995), pages 46–48
^ McCormick (2006), page 120
^ Stokes (1996), page 36
^ Reynolds, Simon. Rip It Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978–1984. Penguin, 2005. p. 367. ISBN 0-14-303672-6
^ Graham (2004), page 14
^ McCormick (2006), page 135.
^ McCormick (2006), page 127
^ "New Year's Day" reached number ten on the UK charts, and received extensive radio coverage in the US, almost breaking that country's Top 50. (McCormick (2006), page 139); "Songfacts: New Year's Day by U2". Retrieved on 2007-09-06.
^ Block, Adam (1989-05-01). "Bono Bites Back". Retrieved on 2007-09-06.
^ "Net Music Countdown: U2". Retrieved on 2007-09-06.
^ Connelly, Christopher (1984-03-14). "Keeping the Faith". Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2007-09-06.
^ "Re-mastered U2 albums released". RTÉ. Retrieved on 2008-07-18.
^ a b McCormick (2006), page 147
^ a b c d Parra, Pimm Jal de la U2 Live: A Concert Documentary, pages 52–55, 1996, Harper Collins Publishers, ISBN 0-7322-6036-1
^ a b c d e Pond, Steve (9 April 1987). "The Joshua Tree Album Review". Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
^ a b Graham (2004), page 21
^ Island Records boss Chris Blackwell initially tried to discourage them from their choice of producers, believing that just when the band were about to achieve the highest levels of success, Eno would "bury them under a layer of avant-garde nonsense". (McCormick (2006), page 151)
^ Stokes, Niall (1996). Into The Heart: The Story Behind Every U2 Song. Australia: HarperCollinsPublishers, pages 50–51. ISBN 0-7322-6036-1.
^ McCormick (2006), page 151
^ Graham, (2004), page 23, 24
^ Stokes, Niall (1996). Into The Heart: The Story Behind Every U2 Song. Australia: HarperCollinsPublishers, pages 55. ISBN 0-7322-6036-1.
^ de la Parra (1994), page 62–63
^ Rolling Stone, which was critical of the album version of "Bad", described its live performance as a 'show stopper'. Henke, James (18 July 1985). "''Wide Awake in America'' Album Review". Rolling Stone.
^ Kaufman, Gil (29 Jun 2005). Live Aid: A Look Back At A Concert That Actually Changed The World Retrieved 31 October 2006.
^ McCormick (2006), page 164
^ de la Parra (2003), pages 72–73
^ Peake, Steve. U2, the Only Band that Mattered in the '80s? Retrieved 31 January 2007.
^ McCormick (2006), page 179
^ Bono in McCormick (2006), pages 169, 177
^ DeCurtis, Anthony (27 March 1987). "U2 Releases The Joshua Tree". Rolling Stone. cited in Gardner, Elysa (ed) (1994). U2: The Rolling Stone Files. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. ISBN 0-283-06239-8.
^ McCormick (2006), page 174
^ Graham (2004), pages 27–30
^ DeCurtis, Anthony (7 May 1987). "Truths and Consequences". Rolling Stone.
^ so named as a "tribute" to, rather than a "metaphor" for, America (McCormick (2006), page 186)
^ McCormick (2006), page 186
^ (1998). Classic Albums: The Joshua Tree [Television Documentary]. Eagle Rock Entertainment.; McCormick (2006), page 186
^ Grammy Award for Album of the Year and a Grammy for the Best Rock Performance By a Duo or Group With Vocal.Grammy Winners List Retrieved 4 December 2006.
^ The Beatles, The Band, and The Who were the first three.
^ "Rock's Hottest Ticket" Time Magazine Archive, April 1987. Retrieved on 20 January 2007.
^ a b The RS 500 Greatest Albums of All-Time Retrieved 15 October 2006.
^ de la Parra (1994), pages 102–103, 111
^ Stokes (1996), page 78; Graham (2004), pages 36–38
^ Rattle and Hum review. Retrieved 3 November 2006; Christgau, Robert. "Rattle and Hum. Retrieved 3 November 2006.
^ Gardner, Elysa (1994). U2: The Rolling Stone Files. New York: Rolling Stone Magazine, page xxiii. ISBN ISBN 0-283-06239-8.
^ Gardner, Elysa (1994). U2: The Rolling Stone Files. New York: Rolling Stone Magazine, page xxiv. ISBN ISBN 0-283-06239-8.
^ McCormick (2006), page 213; "A Story of One" [Video documentary].
^ Eno, Brian (28 November 1991). "Bringing Up Baby". Rolling Stone.
^ Flanagan (1995), pages 4–6; Graham (2004), page 43
^ Paulsen, John (2005-09-20). "Deep Cuts: U2: Part I". Retrieved on 2008-02-09.
^ Graham (2004), page 44
^ Flanagan (1995), page 7
^ Flanagan (1995), pages 6–11
^ Flanagan (1995), page 30; Graham (2004), page 49; Stokes, Niall (1996). Into The Heart: The Story Behind Every U2 Song. Australia: HarperCollinsPublishers, pages 102. ISBN 0-7322-6036-1.
^ de la Parra (1994), pages 139–41; Flanagan (1995), pages 12,13, 58–61; Stokes (1996), pages 110–11
^ de la Parra (2003), pages 153, 166
^ Graham (2004), page 51
^ de la Parra (2003), pages 166–72
^ McCormick (2006), page 261–62
^ McCormick (2006), page 269
^ Graham (2004), pages 62–63
^ "(U2 have) relaxed sufficiently to allow a certain funk into their music...". NME. Retrieved on 2006-10-31.; "U2 have not reinvented themselves so much as rediscovered themselves...". Sunday Times (UK) (2007-02-28). Retrieved on 2006-10-31.
^ "Rolling Stone Pop Review" (March 1997). Rolling Stone (756). Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
^ Mueller, Andrew. "U2's Pop reconsidered". Retrieved on 2008-01-07.; Dentler, Matt (30 October 2000). "U2 makes album world is waiting for". The Daily Texan online. Retrieved on 2008-01-07.; Breimeier, Russ. "The Best of 1990–2000 - U2". Christianity Today. Retrieved on 2008-01-07.
^ "U2 Set to Re-Record Pop". Retrieved on 2006-10-31.
^ Carter, Geoff (1997-04-27). "U2 live: Play-by-play of the concert". The Las Vegas Sun. ; Anderson, Kyle (4 October 2006). U2, Brute? Retrieved on 29 December 2006; U2:Pop : Music Reviews., 18 December 1997. Retrieved 29 December 2006.
^ de la Parra (2003), pages 193–202
^ Rock On The Net: U2 Retrieved 31 October 2006
^ U asked U2! Retrieved 15 January 2007; Furthermore, Bono described the show as "one of the toughest and one of the sweetest nights of my life." (Bono in Conversation. The Independent (26 September 1997). Retrieved 15 January 2007)
^ "U2 And Homer Share Stage In "Simpsons" 200th Episode", MTV (1997-08-14). Retrieved on 2008-05-09.
^ Tyrangiel, Josh (2002-02-23). "Bono's Mission". Time. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
^ McCormick (2006), pages 289 & 296
^ Time to Get the Leathers Out. (27 October 2000). Retrieved on 31 October 2006
^ Hunter, James (26 October 2000). "Review: All That You Can't Leave Behind". Rolling Stone Magazine (RS 853). Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
^ The Rock Radio: U2 biography. Retrieved 31 October 2006.
^ "The RS 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". (30 November 2003). Retrieved on 2008-02-02.; McCormick (2006), pages 308–309
^ (2005). VH1: All Access: U2 [Television documentary].; McCormick (2006), page 309
^ de la Parra (2003), page 268
^ a b Wenner, Jann S (February 2006). "Bono On The Records". Rolling Stone (648): pages 74, 75.
^ Rock On The Net: U2 Retrieved 31 October 2006.
^ Waddell, Ray (13 December 2005). U2's Vertigo Leads Year's Top Tours. Retrieved 31 October 2006.
^ a b U2 stars enter rock Hall of Fame (15 March 2005). Retrieved 17 January 2007; Transcript: Bruce Springsteen Inducts U2 into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved 17 January 2007
^ McConnell, Daniel (2006-08-06). "U2 move their rock empire out of Ireland". Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
^ "U2 Pen “Fifty to Sixty” Songs, New Album Pushed to 2009". Rolling Stone (3 September 2009). Retrieved on 2009-09-03.
^ ""Hands on Electro"" (2008-02-16). Retrieved on 2008-02-16.
^ "Bono Says New U2 Album Has "Trance Influences"" (2007-12-05). Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
^ U2 ties knot with Live Nation deal [1]
^ a b Peake, Steve. Top 10 U2 Songs of the '80s. Retrieved 18 February 2007.
^ Fricke, David (15 December 2004). U2 Dissect "Bomb". Retrieved 18 February 2007.
^ Darling, Tim (May 2006). A Study of the Edge's (U2) Guitar Delay. Retrieved 18 February 2007
^ a b Hutchinson, John (1986). U2's Leading Edge. Musician Magazine, reprinted at Retrieved 25 February 2007.
^ Maione, Marylinn (12 February 2006). Column: off the record..., vol. 6–201 Retrieved 18 February 2007.
^ Reynolds (2005), page 368
^ Considine J.D. (22 January 1997). Rolling Stone: War: Review. Retrieved 18 February 2007.
^ Gardner, Alysa (22 January 1997). U2: Achtung, Baby: Music Reviews. Retrieved 18 February 2007.
^ a b Pareles, Jon (28 April 1997). Under A Golden Arch, Sincerely U2. Retrieved 18 February 2007.
^ Pareles, Jon (14 November 2004). U2: The Catharsis in the Cathedral. Retrieved 18 February 2007.
^ McCormick (2006), pages 135, 139
^ U2 - How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb Review. Retrieved 18 February 2007.
^ Plotz, David (25 January 2002). "The soaring nothingness of U2". Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
^ McCormick (2006), page 113
^ Clash Star Strummer Dies. BBC news 27 December 2002. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
^ Bono (April 2001). "Eulogy: Bono Remembers Joey Ramone". Retrieved on 2008-02-13.
^ "Saint Bono". The Age (26 July 2003). Retrieved on 2008-01-07.
^ NewOrderStory [DVD]. Warner Bros., 2005.
^ Siouxsie Sioux. Gigs In Scotland. Retrieved on 2007-02-08; The Creatures - Siouxsie Sioux Official Website. Archived News: Mojo Icon Award 17.06.05. Last night Siouxsie lifted the Icon Award and the Mojo Honours Awards. The award was given to her by U2's The Edge who cited Siouxsie as a big influence on Bono and U2 before handing over the Award. Retrieved 17 May 2007
^ Wenner, Jann S. (2005-11-03). "Bono Interview". Issue 986. Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2008-02-15.
^ Bayles, Martha. Hole in Our Soul: Loss of Beauty and Meaning in American Popular Music. New York: Free Press, 1994, p.321.
^ "Van Morrison: Induction year 1993". Retrieved on 2008-08-20.
^ [2] Snow Patrol Talks Opening For U2 and New Album. Retrieved on 2008-02-11
^ Gitlin, Lauren (10 August 2006). "Enter the Fray", Rolling Stone.
^ Musicians. OneRepublic's Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
^ Rolling Stone, Issue #1025–1026, 3 May–17 May 2007.
^ The Academy Is... Related Music Artist Discover New Music MTV
^ Music Under Fire: MUF Interviews Your Vegas
^ NME's 10 Most Influential Bands/Artists. NME Magazine, 2002; Chan, Alvin. Angels & Airwaves - Between the Blinks. June 2006. Retrieved 18 February 2007.
^ McCormick (2006), pages 39, 113, 343
^ Tyrangiel, Josh (4 March 2002). Bono. Time magazine. Retrieved 16 January 2007; McCormick (2006), page 289
^ McCormick (2006), page 238
^ McCormick (2006), page 262
^ McCormick (2006), page 277
^ McCormick (2006), pages 285–86
^ McCormick (2006), pages 295–96
^ Ambassador of Conscience Award: 2005 Award Ceremony. Retrieved 5 February 2007
^ Kagan Daryn. CNN Access: Bono backs 'effective aid' for Africa., 24 May 2002. Retrieved 31 October 2006; Bono and O'Neill in Africa: Summing up the trip Retrieved 31 October 2006; Bono wins Chirac aid boost pledge., 21 June 2002. Retrieved 31 October 2006.
^ The Edge (U2) Announces 'Music Rising', a Campaign to Aid Musicians Affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Retrieved 16 January 2007
^ Hiatt, Brian (25 September 2006). "U2, Green Day Unite". Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
^ O'Keefe, Derrick (23 March 2005). "The Empire Moves and Co-opts in Mysterious Ways". CounterPunch. Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
^ Browne, Harry (16 May 2006). "RED Light District: Bono's Independent". CounterPunch. Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
^ Stossel, John and Patrick McMenamin (12 May 2006). "Will More Foreign Aid End Global Poverty?". Retrieved on 2008-01-19.; and "Bono aid is making Africa sick". The Sunday Times (1 January 2006). Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
^ McCormick (2006), page 169
^ McCormick (2006), page 211
^ de la Parra (2003), page 141
^ de la Parra (2003), page 132
^ Wenner, Jann S (2001-12-06). "Goddess In The Doorway Review". Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
^ Perry, Tony (1997-08-03).William S. Burroughs dies at 83; Beat Generation godfather. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved on 2006-10-31; Parry, Ryan and Rebecca Smith (2003-07-03). How Mystical 23 Changed Course Of History. Retrieved on 2008-01-25.
^ Pancella, Angela. U2 Connections: William Gibson. Retrieved on 2008-01-25; American Masters: Allen Ginsberg Retrieved on 2008-01-25.
^ Salman Rushdie's Words Become U2 Lyrics (1999-01-22). Retrieved on 2008-01-25.

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